Thursday, March 20, 2014

Medium Caliber Effectiveness vs Urban Targets

Medium Caliber Effectiveness
Urban Targets

Infantry Fighting Vehicles (IFVs) are expected to perform two main combat missions:

  • Engage light armored vehicles of the enemy using armor piercing ammunition
  • Support organic infantry by fire 
In today's asymmetric battlefields including urban scenarios, the infantry needs to closely work together with their armor.
  • The infantry might pinned down by enemy fire behind cover such as walls either be it brick or adobe or concrete. In this case, the IFV must be able to effectively fire through the wall and incapacitate the enemy team behind cover.
  •  In order for the infantry squad to enter a suspicious building covered by walls, the IFV is neded to create an opening thru the wall for the infantry to enter the compound.

In some parts of the world a material called Adobe (not the software company... ;) is very common in building walls.

Wikipedia defines Adobe as:
 Adobe is a natural building material made from sand, clay, water, and some kind of fibrous or organic material (sticks, straw, and/or manure), which the builders shape into bricks (using frames) and dry in the sun. Adobe buildings are similar to cob and mudbrick buildings. Adobe structures are extremely durable, and account for some of the oldest existing buildings in the world

The image below shows different calibers and types of rounds fired against a 20cm thick concrete wall.
TNO, "Capability Gap in Urban Ops", 2012
Some information on the types of rounds fired:
FAPDS: Frangible Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot. The round breaks up upon impact with soft and hard targets. On the one hand, the projectile’s lethality is due to its penetrating power; on the other, to the effects of fragmentation. Consisting of a tungsten heavy metal alloy.
PELE: Penetrator with Enhanced Lateral Effect.
Crucial to its success is the specially engineered projectile, which combines two materials with different levels of density. Containing neither a fuse nor explosives, the round’s lethality derives from its high penetrating power coupled with fragmentation, blast and incendiary effects.
APDS: Armor Piercing Discarding Sabot.
P-ABM: Programmable Air Burst
MP: Multi Purpose
The other below shows the effects of again different calibers and types against a 80cm thick adobe wall.
TNO, "Capability Gap in Urban Ops", 2012

Adobe Hut
Conclusions from the TNO's study are remarkable:
Projectiles with fuze (20 to 35 mm HE & MP) are
NOT capable to defeat 80 cm Adobe wall
- Fragment debris in front of wall
- No fragment debris after the wall
NOT capable to breech
KE projectiles (25 to 35 mm APDS and APFDS) are
capable to defeat 80 cm Adobe wall
- No fragment debris in front of wall, but during flight
- No fragment debris after the wall
PABM and KETF unprogrammed are capable to defeat 40 cm Adobe
- No fragment debris in front of wall
- Fragment debris after the wall

Frangible and PELE-PEN (25 to 30mm) projectiles are
capable to defeat 80 cm Adobe wall
- No fragment debris in front of wall
- Some Fragment debris after the wall.

No comments: